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Get to Know Us. Axons are stretched and damaged when parts of the brain of differing density slide over one another. Prognoses vary widely depending on the extent of damage. Three categories used for classifying the severity of brain injuries are mild, moderate or severe. Symptoms of a mild brain injury include headaches, confusions, ringing ears, fatigue, changes in sleep patterns, mood or behavior.
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Other symptoms include trouble with memory, concentration, attention or thinking. Mental fatigue is a common debilitating experience and may not be linked by the patient to the original minor incident. Narcolepsy and sleep disorders are common misdiagnoses. Cognitive symptoms include confusion, aggressive, abnormal behavior, slurred speech, and coma or other disorders of consciousness.
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Physical symptoms include headaches that do not go away or worsen, vomiting or nausea, convulsions, abnormal dilation of the eyes, inability to awaken from sleep, weakness in extremities and loss of coordination. In cases of severe brain injuries, the likelihood of areas with permanent disability is great, including neurocognitive deficits , delusions often, to be specific, monothematic delusions , speech or movement problems, and intellectual disability.
There may also be personality changes. The most severe cases result in coma or even persistent vegetative state. Symptoms observed in children include changes in eating habits, persistent irritability or sadness, changes in attention, disrupted sleeping habits, or loss of interest in toys. Presentation varies according to the injury.
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Some patients with head trauma stabilize and other patients deteriorate. A patient may present with or without neurological deficit. Patients with concussion may have a history of seconds to minutes unconsciousness, then normal arousal. Disturbance of vision and equilibrium may also occur. Common symptoms of head injury include coma , confusion, drowsiness, personality change, seizures , nausea and vomiting , headache and a lucid interval , during which a patient appears conscious only to deteriorate later.
Because brain injuries can be life-threatening, even people with apparently slight injuries, with no noticeable signs or complaints, require close observation; They have a chance for severe symptoms later on. The caretakers of those patients with mild trauma who are released from the hospital are frequently advised to rouse the patient several times during the next 12 to 24 hours to assess for worsening symptoms. The Glasgow Coma Scale GCS is a tool for measuring degree of unconsciousness and is thus a useful tool for determining severity of injury. The Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale is used in young children.
Symptoms of brain injuries can also be influenced by the location of the injury and as a result impairments are specific to the part of the brain affected. Lesion size is correlated with severity, recovery, and comprehension. Studies show there is a correlation between brain lesion and language, speech, and category-specific disorders. Wernicke's aphasia is associated with anomia , unknowingly making up words neologisms , and problems with comprehension. An impairment following damage to a region of the brain does not necessarily imply that the damaged area is wholly responsible for the cognitive process which is impaired, however.
For example, in pure alexia , the ability to read is destroyed by a lesion damaging both the left visual field and the connection between the right visual field and the language areas Broca's area and Wernicke's area. However, this does not mean one suffering from pure alexia is incapable of comprehending speech—merely that there is no connection between their working visual cortex and language areas—as is demonstrated by the fact that pure alexics can still write, speak, and even transcribe letters without understanding their meaning.
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Lesions to the fusiform gyrus often result in prosopagnosia , the inability to distinguish faces and other complex objects from each other. Amygdala lesions change the functional pattern of activation to emotional stimuli in regions that are distant from the amygdala. Other lesions to the visual cortex have different effects depending on the location of the damage.
Lesions to V1 , for example, can cause blindsight in different areas of the brain depending on the size of the lesion and location relative to the calcarine fissure. Head injuries can be caused by a large variety of reasons. All of these causes can be put into two categories used to classify head injuries; those that occur from impact blows and those that occur from shaking. Head injuries from shaking are most common amongst infants and children. In addition, the highest rate of injury is among children ages 0—14 and adults age 65 and older.
Brain tumors can increase intracranial pressure, causing brain damage. There are a few methods used to diagnose a head injury. A healthcare professional will ask the patient questions revolving around the injury as well as questions to help determine in what ways the injury is affecting function. In addition to this hearing, vision, balance, and reflexes may also be assessed as an indicator of the severity of the injury. A CT is an imaging technique that allows physicians to see inside the head without surgery in order to determine if there is internal bleeding or swelling in the brain.
The changes in microcirculation, impaired auto-regulation, cerebral edema, and axonal injury start as soon as head injury occurs and manifest as clinical, biochemical, and radiological changes. Glasgow Coma Scale GCS is the most widely used scoring system used to assess the level of severity of a brain injury. This method is based on the objective observations of specific traits to determine the severity of a brain injury.
It is based on three traits eye opening, verbal response, and motor response, gauged as described below. Based on the Glasgow Coma Scale severity is classified as follows, severe brain injuries score , moderate brain injuries score and mild score CT scans and MRI are the two techniques widely used and are most effective. CT scans can show brain bleeds, fractures of the skull, fluid build up in the brain that will lead to increased cranial pressure.
MRI is able to better to detect smaller injuries, detect damage within the brain, diffuse axonal injury, injuries to the brainstem, posterior fossa, and subtemporal and subfrontal regions. However patients with pacemakers, metallic implants, or other metal within their bodies are unable to have an MRI done. Typically the other imaging techniques are not used in a clinical setting because of the cost, lack of availability.
Most head injuries are of a benign nature and require no treatment beyond analgesics such as acetaminophen. Steroidal painkillers such as ibuprofen are avoided since they could make any potential bleeding worse.
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Due to the high risk of even minor brain injuries, close monitoring for potential complications such as intracranial bleeding. If the brain has been severely damaged by trauma, neurosurgical evaluation may be useful. Treatments may involve controlling elevated intracranial pressure. This can include sedation, paralytics, cerebrospinal fluid diversion.
Second line alternatives include decompressive craniectomy Jagannathan et al. Although all of these methods have potential benefits, there has been no randomized study that has shown unequivocal benefit. Let us know about it. Does this product have an incorrect or missing image? Send us a new image.
Is this product missing categories? Checkout Your Cart Price. Description Details Customer Reviews Bondage is a middle age woman struggling with drug addiction leading her to a failed suicide attempt.